The Weight Loss Scientist: You've Been LIED To About Calories, Dieting & Losing Weight: Giles Yeo

Last updated: Jun 2, 2023

The video is an interview with Dr. Giles Yeo, a leading expert on fat and weight loss, discussing the limitations and inaccuracies of calorie counting, the importance of what we eat, and sustainable weight loss methods.

The video features an interview with Dr. Giles Yeo, a leading expert on fat and weight loss. He discusses common misconceptions about calories and dieting, and emphasizes the importance of understanding what you eat rather than just counting calories. Yeo also addresses the stereotypes surrounding veganism and offers advice on sustainable weight loss. The video also includes a message of gratitude to the audience for supporting the podcast. Yeo shares his academic journey as a geneticist and how he became interested in studying the genetics of obesity.

  • Calories are not accurate and tell you absolutely nothing.
  • Understanding the limitations and caveats of calories is important.
  • Everyone's brain hates it when they lose weight, even a few pounds, because it reduces their chance of survival.
  • Veganism, plant-based in particular, is a diet for privileged people who can choose to do so.
  • The simple way to achieve sustainable weight loss is the set of numbers that you can apply to whatever diet you like.
  • Subscribing to the podcast helps the channel more than can be explained.
  • Dr. Giles Yeo is from San Francisco and did his undergraduate studies in genetics.
  • Studying the genetics of body weight is studying the genetics of how our brain influences our feeding behavior.
  • It is important to focus on the quality of the food we eat rather than just the number of calories.

The Weight Loss Scientist: You've Been LIED To About Calories, Dieting & Losing Weight: Giles Yeo - YouTube

The Weight Loss Scientist: You

Section 1: The Limitations of Calorie Counting

  • Between 20 and 50 years old, the average person will gain about 15 kilos in weight.
  • Calories are not accurate and tell you absolutely nothing.
  • A stick of celery raw has only six calories, but if you cook it, those six calories become 31.
  • Understanding the limitations and caveats of calories is important.
  • Everyone's brain hates it when they lose weight, even a few pounds, because it reduces their chance of survival.
The Weight Loss Scientist: You

Section 2: Veganism and Sustainable Weight Loss

  • Veganism, plant-based in particular, is a diet for privileged people who can choose to do so.
  • The simple way to achieve sustainable weight loss is the set of numbers that you can apply to whatever diet you like.
  • General stereotypes about veganism need addressing.
  • Not everyone needs to be vegan.
  • There are many ways to achieve sustainable weight loss.
The Weight Loss Scientist: You

Section 3: The Importance of Subscribing to the Podcast

  • Subscribing to the podcast helps the channel more than can be explained.
  • The guests on the platform are incredible because so many people have hit the subscribe button.
  • The amount of people subscribed will fuel what they do together over the next year.
  • Thank you to everyone who tunes in to listen to the podcast.
  • Subscribing to the podcast can change the course of the guests they are able to invite to the show.
The Weight Loss Scientist: You

The Weight Loss Scientist: You've Been LIED To About Calories, Dieting & Losing Weight: Giles Yeo - YouTube

Section 4: Dr. Giles Yeo's Academic Journey

  • Dr. Giles Yeo is from San Francisco and did his undergraduate studies in genetics.
  • He came to Cambridge to do his PhD and worked on the genetics of the Japanese puffer fish.
  • He realized that genetics of pufferfish was not going to pay his mortgage and needed a job.
  • He joined a lab that had just identified the very first obesity gene in humans when mutated, causing severe obesity.
  • He started with the genetics of severe childhood obesity, where kids can't stop eating because they lack the signal between fat and the brain.
The Weight Loss Scientist: You

Childhood Obesity and Genetics

  • How much fat you carry is important because it determines how long you would last in the wild without food.
  • Children with a mutation that breaks the signal of how much fat they have cannot control their diet.
  • Dr. Giles Yeo started studying extreme obesity and moved on to study all body weight.
  • He began to think more broadly and speak to people outside the academic environment.
  • He has done shows on the BBC and documentaries on topics such as why we are getting so fat, clean eating, and vitamin pills.
The Weight Loss Scientist: You

Why Food?

  • Studying the genetics of body weight is studying the genetics of how our brain influences our feeding behavior.
  • Dr. Giles Yeo was interested in understanding the mechanisms of why people respond to stress by eating or not eating.
  • He loves food and began to think about what it is about food that makes him relax and calm.
  • He wanted to know more about himself and hence more about other people as well.
  • He is a professor at the University of Cambridge and teaches and researches how the brain controls food intake.
The Weight Loss Scientist: You

Limitations of Calorie Counting

  • Calorie counting is not accurate because the calorie content of food is not always the same.
  • Our bodies do not absorb all the calories we consume.
  • Our bodies burn calories differently depending on the type of food we eat.
  • Calorie counting does not take into account the quality of the food we eat.
  • It is important to focus on what we eat rather than how much we eat.
The Weight Loss Scientist: You

Sustainable Weight Loss Methods

  • Diets do not work because they are not sustainable.
  • It is important to make small changes to our lifestyle that we can maintain in the long term.
  • It is important to find a balance between what we eat and how much we exercise.
  • It is important to focus on the quality of the food we eat and to eat a variety of foods.
  • It is important to listen to our bodies and to eat when we are hungry and stop when we are full.
The Weight Loss Scientist: You

Food and Society

  • There is a polarized response to food in society today.
  • There are people who love food and enjoy it, and there are people who fear food.
  • Most non-infectious diseases today are due to poor diet, including obesity, diabetes, high blood pressure, certain heart diseases, and cancers.
  • We need to know more about our diet and fix it, but not through fearing food.
  • We need to understand food, love food, and learn how to cook and source better food.
The Weight Loss Scientist: You

Orthorexia

  • Orthorexia is a type of eating disorder characterized by a fear of not eating properly.
  • It is similar to anorexia and bulimia in that it involves a desire to control something.
  • People with orthorexia become so hung up on their diet that they will only eat certain foods prepared in a specific way.
  • Orthorexia is analogous to obsessive-compulsive behavior, specifically with regards to food preparation and consumption.
  • A study cited in Gene Eating found that about 49% of women who follow food accounts on Instagram have orthorexia.
The Weight Loss Scientist: You

The Limitations of Calorie Counting

  • Calorie counting is not an accurate way to measure the nutritional value of food.
  • Not all calories are created equal, and different foods have different effects on the body.
  • Calorie counting does not take into account the quality of the food, such as its nutrient density or the presence of additives and preservatives.
  • Calorie counting can lead to an unhealthy focus on numbers rather than the overall quality of the diet.
  • It is important to focus on the quality of the food we eat rather than just the number of calories.
The Weight Loss Scientist: You

Sustainable Weight Loss

  • Diets do not work in the long term because they are not sustainable.
  • Restrictive diets can lead to binge eating and weight gain in the long term.
  • It is important to focus on making sustainable lifestyle changes, such as incorporating more physical activity and making healthier food choices.
  • Small changes over time can lead to significant improvements in health and weight loss.
  • It is important to find a balance between enjoying food and making healthy choices.
The Weight Loss Scientist: You

The Problem with Diet Advice

  • There is a lot of conflicting advice on diets and weight loss.
  • Too much advice can lead to confusion and a lack of confidence in what to eat.
  • There is no one singular right diet for everyone.
  • People need to find the right diet for themselves based on their biology, psychology, and lifestyle.
  • Following a diet that doesn't work for you will make it difficult to stick to and thrive from.
The Weight Loss Scientist: You

The Influence of Social Media on Eating Habits

  • Instagram is a platform where many people share curated pictures of food and fitness.
  • These pictures can be triggering for people susceptible to eating disorders.
  • There is a lot of conflicting advice on Instagram about what to eat and how to lose weight.
  • People may feel pressure to follow certain diets or eat certain foods based on what they see on Instagram.
  • Eating is a visible event, and people may judge others based on what they eat.
The Weight Loss Scientist: You

The Role of Genetics in Eating Habits

  • There are genetic differences between individuals that may affect their relationship with food and weight loss.
  • However, genetics currently cannot accurately determine why different people eat differently.
  • Cultural differences may also play a role in eating habits.
The Weight Loss Scientist: You

The Lack of a One-Size-Fits-All Diet

  • There is no one singular right diet for everyone.
  • General principles, such as eating less sugar and more vegetables, can be agreed upon.
  • People need to find the right diet for themselves based on their biology, psychology, and lifestyle.
  • Following a diet that doesn't work for you will make it difficult to stick to and thrive from.
  • The conflicting advice on diets is due to the fact that there is no one singular right diet.
The Weight Loss Scientist: You

Genetics and Body Weight

  • East Asian and South Asian people have a higher predisposition to diabetes compared to white people, even though obesity is not particularly a big thing in their cultures.
  • Body shape matters as well, where you put your fat, and your height and weight.
  • There are some diseases that are more common in certain ethnic groups, but it is not always clear why.
  • The obese Gene, also known as the leptin Gene, lets your brain know how much fat you have.
  • Leptin is pretty much binary, so if you have a little bit of it, you're fine, but if you have none of it, you're not.
The Weight Loss Scientist: You

MC4R Gene and Obesity

  • The MC4R Gene is part of the same fat sensing pathway as the leptin Gene.
  • There are thousands of different mutations in this Gene, and depending on the severity of the dysfunction, some are completely dead, and some are 70% functional.
  • Point three percent of people in the UK and one million people in the United States carry mutations in this Gene, making them more likely to end up with obesity.
  • If you carry a mutation in this Gene at 18 years old, you are on average 18 kilos heavier or 40 pounds heavier.
  • It is a tunable system, meaning you're either slightly heavier or a lot heavier.
The Weight Loss Scientist: You

Keto Diet and Weight Loss

  • The keto diet involves cutting out all of the things that have gluten in them.
  • Dr. Giles Yeo tried the keto diet for about two months and lost more weight than he had ever lost in his life.
  • He lost about a stone in weight but found it difficult and felt like he was fighting against something.
The Weight Loss Scientist: You

The Brain's Response to Weight Loss

  • The brain hates it when we lose weight, regardless of our starting point.
  • When we start losing weight, the brain sees it as a threat to our survival and tries to bring us back to our previous weight.
  • The brain makes us hungry and lowers our metabolism to store more calories, even if we eat the same amount as before.
  • This is true for almost every diet, and the weight will eventually come back once we stop the diet.
  • The brain's response is natural because it's wired for a feast-famine environment, but we now live in a feast environment with too much food.
The Weight Loss Scientist: You

The Brain's Evolutionary Response to Food

  • The brain's response to weight loss is due to its evolutionary response to food scarcity.
  • Our brains are wired for a feast-famine environment, where we eat as much as possible during a feast to survive during a famine.
  • However, we now live in a feast environment with too much food, and our brains are responding in a natural but harmful way.
  • The efficiency of food production has made calories cheaper than ever, but the quality of the food is not always good.
  • This has kept us alive until now, but it's also killing us.
The Weight Loss Scientist: You

The Limitations of Calorie Counting

  • Calorie counting is not always accurate because the calorie content of food can vary depending on how it's cooked and processed.
  • Our bodies also process calories differently depending on the type of food, so not all calories are equal.
  • Calorie counting can also be unsustainable because it's difficult to maintain over a long period of time.
  • Instead of focusing on calories, we should focus on the quality of the food we eat and how it affects our bodies.
  • We should also focus on sustainable weight loss methods that we can maintain over time.
The Weight Loss Scientist: You

The Importance of What We Eat

  • The quality of the food we eat is more important than the quantity of calories we consume.
  • We should focus on eating whole, unprocessed foods that are nutrient-dense and provide our bodies with the nutrients they need.
  • We should also focus on eating a balanced diet that includes all the macronutrients (carbohydrates, protein, and fat) and micronutrients (vitamins and minerals) our bodies need.
  • Eating a healthy diet can also improve our overall health and reduce the risk of chronic diseases.
  • We should aim for sustainable changes in our eating habits that we can maintain over time.
The Weight Loss Scientist: You

The Global Obesity Crisis

  • Over the past 10 years, more people are dying from overnutrition than undernutrition.
  • Worldwide trend is getting fatter, not skinnier.
  • Higher income countries have more obvious problems, but less developed countries also face challenges.
  • Fixing the food environment is necessary to address the obesity crisis.
  • Obesity is an emergency because it leads to diseases such as diabetes, high blood pressure, and certain cancers.
The Weight Loss Scientist: You

The Limitations of BMI

  • BMI is a way of controlling for height and weight on a population level.
  • On an individual level, BMI is not particularly useful for health other than tracking weight.
  • Each person is different in shape and size and can carry different amounts of fat safely.
  • Obesity depends on who you are and how heavy you are before it begins to influence your health.
The Weight Loss Scientist: You

The Importance of Food

  • Intermittent fasting or time-restricted eating can be effective for weight loss.
  • What we eat is more important than how much we eat.
  • Processed foods and added sugars are major contributors to obesity.
  • Eating a variety of whole foods is important for getting the necessary nutrients.
  • There is no one-size-fits-all approach to diet and weight loss.
The Weight Loss Scientist: You

Sustainable Weight Loss Methods

  • Small, gradual changes to diet and lifestyle are more sustainable than drastic changes.
  • Find physical activities that you enjoy and can incorporate into your daily routine.
  • Get enough sleep and manage stress levels to support weight loss.
  • Weight loss is not a one-time event, but a lifelong journey.
  • Focus on overall health and well-being, not just weight loss.
The Weight Loss Scientist: You

Eating Schedule

  • Eating like a king at breakfast, a prince or princess at lunch, and a pauper at dinner is a common saying in many societies.
  • Metabolism is highest during the day, so eating the biggest meal during the day allows for more time to burn calories.
  • A study found that there was no difference in body weight change whether most calories were eaten at breakfast or dinner, but eating more at breakfast made people feel less hungry throughout the day.
  • It is important to eat when you have to eat, but if actively trying to lose weight, cutting calories from dinner may be more effective.
  • Advice about eating schedules may not be practical for people with night shifts or other constraints.
The Weight Loss Scientist: You

Keto Diet

  • The original keto diet was designed for epilepsy.
  • The keto diet can be effective for short-term weight loss, but it is not sustainable for most people.
  • The keto diet can lead to nutrient deficiencies and other health problems.
  • It is important to focus on a balanced diet and sustainable lifestyle changes for long-term weight loss.
  • There is no one-size-fits-all approach to diet and weight loss, and it is important to find what works for each individual.
The Weight Loss Scientist: You

Calorie Counting

  • Calorie counting is not always accurate because the body processes different foods differently.
  • Not all calories are created equal, and the quality of the food matters.
  • It is important to focus on nutrient-dense foods and a balanced diet rather than just counting calories.
  • Restrictive diets and calorie counting can lead to disordered eating and other health problems.
  • It is important to listen to your body and focus on sustainable lifestyle changes for long-term weight loss.
The Weight Loss Scientist: You

Mindset and Behavior

  • Mindset and behavior play a crucial role in weight loss and maintenance.
  • It is important to focus on self-compassion and a positive relationship with food.
  • Restrictive diets and negative self-talk can lead to disordered eating and other health problems.
  • It is important to find a balance between enjoying food and making healthy choices.
  • Small, sustainable changes over time can lead to long-term success.
The Weight Loss Scientist: You

Keto Diet

  • Keto was originally designed for epilepsy.
  • Original versions of Keto were unsustainable due to high levels of fat and almost zero carbs.
  • Keto can be recommended for inflammation-related diseases depending on where the inflammation is.
  • Keto reduces the incidence of epilepsy by forcing the brain to use ketones instead of glucose.
  • Keto makes you feel fuller and more satiated, resulting in weight loss.
  • Studies need to be done to determine the safety of Keto over a long period of time.
The Weight Loss Scientist: You

Protein, Fat, and Carbohydrates

  • A calorie of protein makes you feel fuller than a calorie of fat or carbohydrate.
  • Protein is chemically the most complex and takes the longest to digest and metabolize.
  • Protein gets digested into amino acids, which take a lot of energy to metabolize compared to fat and carbs.
  • For every 100 calories of protein, only 70 calories can be used because 30 are spent dealing with protein.
  • Protein calories are not accurate because of the amount of energy it takes to sort out protein.
The Weight Loss Scientist: You

Introducing Carbohydrates

  • Introducing high fiber carbohydrates can make Keto more sustainable.
  • Adding a little bit of carbohydrates can make it easier to stick to Keto.
  • Studies need to be done to determine the safety of Keto over a long period of time.
  • Millions of people swear by Keto, but it's important to not eat too much animal fat and have more vegetable and fish fat and olive oil.
  • For a healthy individual, introducing a little bit of carbohydrates can make Keto more sustainable.
The Weight Loss Scientist: You

Type 2 Diabetes and Keto

  • Keto can be a good and safe thing for some type 2 diabetics looking to control their blood glucose.
  • There are different types of Keto that can be used to control blood glucose.
  • Make sure to not eat too much animal fat and have more olive oil, fish fat, and vegetable fat.
  • Studies need to be done to determine the safety of Keto over a long period of time.
  • Adding high fiber carbohydrates can make Keto more sustainable.
The Weight Loss Scientist: You

Limitations of Calorie Counting

  • Calories are a useful tool to give a general idea of how much you are eating during the day.
  • Calories tell us nothing about the quality of food we are eating.
  • Calories do not tell us how much protein, fiber, fat, or sugar is in our food.
  • Calories only give us information about how much food we are eating.
  • A world where we are more concerned about the quality of food we are feeding ourselves is important.
The Weight Loss Scientist: You

The Importance of What We Eat

  • Calorie counting diets may help with weight loss, but they do not necessarily make us healthier.
  • It is important to consider the quality of our food, not just the number of calories.
  • Health metrics such as blood glucose levels, blood pressure, and energy levels are important to consider.
  • Calories are a measure, but they are a blunt tool that does not measure what we need to measure.
  • Caloric availability is the amount of calories that can be extracted from a food versus the total number of calories in a food.
The Weight Loss Scientist: You

Caloric Availability

  • Caloric availability is important because different foods have different amounts of calories available.
  • Caloric availability depends on what we do to the food.
  • Example: 100 calories of sugar will give us nearly 100 calories, while 100 calories of sweet corn will give us fewer calories because we cannot digest it all.
  • Example: A medium-sized stick of raw celery has only 6 calories, but if we cook it, it becomes 30 calories.
  • Cooking can be considered an extension of our stomach because it does some of the digestion for us.
The Weight Loss Scientist: You

Sustainable Weight Loss Methods

  • Weight loss is not just about calorie counting, but about making sustainable lifestyle changes.
  • Small changes in our diet and exercise habits can lead to long-term weight loss.
  • It is important to find a balance between enjoying food and being mindful of what we eat.
  • Diets that restrict certain foods or food groups are not sustainable in the long-term.
  • It is important to focus on the quality of our food and to eat a variety of foods.
The Weight Loss Scientist: You

Limitations of Calorie Counting

  • Cooking food can change the number of calories extracted from it.
  • Calorie counts on packages can be misleading.
  • Religiously counting calories means that depending on what type of calories you eat, you will be absorbing different amounts of calories anyway.
  • Calorie counting is a moving target.
  • Calorie counting can be a useful strategy for some people to keep the weight off and be healthier.
The Weight Loss Scientist: You

Benefits of Calorie Counting

  • Calorie counting gives people something to measure, which is relative.
  • Measuring every day and eating the same thing they've done before is beneficial for some people.
  • Reducing the portion size of what you're eating works.
  • Calorie counting can be a useful strategy for some people to keep the weight off and be healthier.
  • Calorie counting can be a useful tool for people who are passionate about it and have had great results from it.
The Weight Loss Scientist: You

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The Weight Loss Scientist: You've Been LIED To About Calories, Dieting & Losing Weight: Giles Yeo - YouTube

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