Harvard Professor REVEALS How To SLOW & REVERSE AGING | Dr. David Sinclair

Last updated: Jun 1, 2023

The video is about Harvard Professor Dr. David Sinclair discussing his theory on aging and how the loss of essential information in the epigenome causes cells to lose their identity, leading to aging and disease, and how his research may lead to slowing and reversing the aging process.

The video features an interview with Harvard professor Dr. David Sinclair, who discusses his research on human longevity and his new book, "Lifespan: The Revolutionary Science of Why We Age and Why We Don't Have To." Sinclair explains that there is a deep layer of aging, known as level three, which involves a DNA clock that tells our bodies how old we are and when we are likely to die. He also introduces the information theory of aging, which suggests that our bodies lose essential information as we age, leading to the hallmarks of aging. Sinclair explains that the epigenome, which controls which genes in the string of DNA are turned on and off, is an analog system that determines a cell's function and identity. Aging occurs when cells lose their packaging and eventually their identity, leading to disease.

  • David Sinclair is a Harvard professor working on human longevity.
  • Aging has eight hallmarks, including telomere attrition and mitochondrial dysfunction.
  • The epigenome controls which genes are turned on and off and is involved in aging.
  • Restoring the epigenome's information can slow and reverse aging.
  • Exercise, diet, and certain molecules like NMN and resveratrol can restore the epigenome's information.
  • Proteins and enzymes like sirtuins protect the body and respond to the cellular environment.
  • Stress the body to slow aging, but not enough to cause lasting damage.
  • When to eat is important, and reducing calories can extend lifespan.
  • Most species only live as long as they need to reproduce and then a little bit more.

Harvard Professor REVEALS How To SLOW & REVERSE AGING | Dr. David Sinclair - YouTube

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Introduction

  • There is a DNA clock that tells our bodies how old we are.
  • David Sinclair is a Harvard professor who is doing groundbreaking work on human longevity.
  • His theory on aging may lead to slowing and reversing the aging process.
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The Information Theory of Aging

  • Aging has been worked on for about 5,000 years, and in the last 20 years, a set of hallmarks of aging has been identified.
  • There are about eight hallmarks of aging, including telomere attrition and mitochondrial dysfunction.
  • The epigenome is involved in aging, and our bodies are losing essential information as we get older.
  • The epigenome controls which genes in the string of DNA are turned on and off.
  • The epigenome is an analog system that determines the cell's function and identity.
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The Epigenome and Aging

  • The epigenome is the structure of how the DNA is organized.
  • DNA is packaged up around proteins called histones, and this is the chromatin structure.
  • The epigenome is an analog system because it changes when you wake up and what you eat.
  • The amount that the DNA is unspooled and the place in which it is unspooled determines the cell's function and identity.
  • Aging is caused because cells lose their packaging and eventually lose their identity, leading to disease.
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Harvard Professor REVEALS How To SLOW & REVERSE AGING | Dr. David Sinclair - YouTube

How to Slow and Reverse Aging

  • David Sinclair's research focuses on how to slow and reverse aging by restoring the epigenome's information.
  • He believes that restoring the epigenome's information can lead to the reversal of aging and the prevention of age-related diseases.
  • His research has shown that certain molecules, such as NMN and resveratrol, can restore the epigenome's information and slow down aging.
  • He also recommends a healthy lifestyle, including exercise and a healthy diet, to slow down aging.
  • David Sinclair's book, Lifespan, explains his research and how to slow and reverse aging.
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The Epigenome and Aging

  • The loss of essential information in the epigenome causes cells to lose their identity, leading to aging and disease.
  • The epigenome controls which genes are on and off.
  • Biological stress, such as breaking a chromosome, causes cells to stop dividing and arrest.
  • Cells lose their original youthful gene expression pattern of how the genes are turned on and off.
  • Nerve cells lose their ability to stay nerve cells and liver cells lose their identity as liver cells.
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Proteins and Enzymes

  • Proteins are little machines that go around and can change the function of other things.
  • Enzymes accelerate reactions and there are about 20,000 different types of enzymes in the body.
  • Certain types of enzymes help package the DNA and help with DNA repair.
  • Exercise, dieting, and being hungry allow these enzymes to become more active and keep the body younger for longer.
  • Enzymes called sirtuins protect the body and are like a little tiny pair of scissors that clip off chemicals called acetyls.
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Lifestyle and Aging

  • The sirtuins respond to the cellular environment and require a chemical called NAD and another molecule called resveratrol.
  • Resveratrol was discovered years ago from red wine and together with NAD, they make the enzymes keep the body younger.
  • Exercise, dieting, and being hungry can make the enzymes that control our body and make us healthier much more active.
  • There are ways to slow down and reverse aging from a lifestyle perspective.
  • Studying enzymes called sirtuins for about 25 years has shown that they respond to the cellular environment.
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DNA Damage and Aging

  • The DNA damage process causes the sirtuins to get inactive and the packaging of the DNA to loosen.
  • Genes that have no business being on in the brain come on, leading to diseases of the brain.
  • Studying enzymes called sirtuins for about 25 years has shown that they respond to the cellular environment.
  • Exercise, dieting, and being hungry can make the enzymes that control our body and make us healthier much more active.
  • There are ways to slow down and reverse aging from a lifestyle perspective.
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Stress the Body to Slow Aging

  • Epigenome is responsible for aging and disease.
  • Cells lose their identity due to the loss of essential information in the epigenome.
  • Stress the body to make it feel like it's under threat of survival.
  • Running and becoming out of breath a few times a week can build up the body.
  • Being hungry a couple of times a week or every day can turn on sirtuins to make more fuel nad for enzymes.
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Pulsing Stress to Avoid Lasting Damage

  • A little bit of bad is actually extraordinarily good.
  • Stress the body to fear adversity in the future but not enough to cause lasting damage.
  • Don't overdo it, be a little bit puffed and hungry.
  • Starvation and malnutrition are not going to make you live longer.
  • Pulse stress and let the body recover, not constant.
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When to Eat is Important

  • Reducing calories by 25 for the whole life can extend lifespan by 30 but make the animal miserable and aggressive.
  • It's not just what you eat, it's when you eat that's important.
  • As long as you have that period of hunger, you can gorge yourself as much as you want.
  • Enjoy life as long as you have that period of hunger once a day or maybe twice a week.
  • Repair systems become complacent as we age.
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Antagonistic Pleiotropy and Lifespan

  • We evolved to stay healthy and alive and fit till we're 40.
  • Forces of natural selection decline after 40.
  • Building a body that will last a thousand years is pointless.
  • Most species only live as long as they need to reproduce and then a little bit more.
  • Whales can live for a couple of hundred years because they have no predators.
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Levels of Aging Reset

  • There are three levels of resetting aging.
  • Level one is easy and involves manipulating proteins that turn genes on and off.
  • Level two is harder and involves silencing genes for a long time, which can be done through exercise, diet, and enzymes like sirtuins.
  • Level three is the deep layer of aging and involves a DNA clock that tells our bodies how old we are.
  • The DNA clock is based on chemical groups that get added and subtracted to our DNA in predictable ways as we age.
  • Machine learning can be used to read the methylation of the genome and predict a person's biological age and date of death.
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Resetting the Biological Clock

  • Resetting the biological clock involves manipulating the levels of enzymes that add or subtract methyl chemicals to our DNA.
  • Level two aging reset can be achieved through diet, exercise, and enzymes like sirtuins, but it is not permanent.
  • Level three aging reset is truly permanent and can potentially reset the clock by ten years or more.
  • Research is just starting to figure out how to achieve level three aging reset.
  • Resetting the biological clock can potentially lead to slowing and reversing the aging process.
  • Dr. Sinclair has a regiment of drugs and precursors to help reset the biological clock.
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The DNA Clock

  • The DNA clock is a deep layer of aging that tells our bodies how old we are.
  • Chemical groups called methylation accumulate on our DNA in predictable ways as we age.
  • The DNA clock can be read through machine learning and used to predict a person's biological age and date of death.
  • The DNA clock is not specific to a person's lifespan, but it is accurate in predicting biological age.
  • The DNA clock can be used to measure the age of dogs and other animals.
  • Research is focused on finding ways to reset the DNA clock and potentially slow or reverse the aging process.
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The Evolution of Aging

  • Humans were not at the apex of the food chain until recently, which may explain why we did not live as long as other animals.
  • Humans could potentially evolve to have longer lifespans if evolution continues.
  • Whales have been at the apex of the food chain for about 30 million years and have evolved long lifespans.
  • Humans share most of their genes with whales and are warm-blooded and conscious like them.
  • Humans have a chance of living to 70 or 80 years old, but could potentially evolve to have 200 year lifespans.
  • Research on aging and the DNA clock may lead to extending human lifespans and slowing or reversing the aging process.
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Metformin and Aging

  • Metformin activates the AMPK pathway, which makes the body think it's hungry and keeps blood sugar levels steady.
  • Metformin boosts the number of mitochondria in cells, making them more efficient at generating energy.
  • Metformin poisons part of the mitochondria, which forces the cell to create more mitochondria and increase ATP production.
  • Metformin also makes cells more sensitive to insulin, which helps keep glucose and sugar levels steady.
  • Metformin can blunt the effects of exercise on building mitochondria if taken in large amounts, so it's best to pulse it with exercise.
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Mechanism of Metformin

  • Metformin poisons complex one in the mitochondria, which decreases ATP production in the short run.
  • The cell responds by creating more mitochondria to increase ATP production.
  • Metformin also makes cells more sensitive to insulin, which helps keep glucose and sugar levels steady.
  • Metformin should be pulsed with exercise to avoid blunting the effects of exercise on building mitochondria.
  • Metformin has been used for decades and its side effects are well-known.
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