Andrew Huberman: How to Prevent and Treat Colds and Flu

Last updated: Jan 8, 2024

The video is about preventing and treating colds and flu. Andrew Huberman, a professor of neurobiology and ophthalmology at Stanford School of Medicine, discusses the science behind colds and flu, their impact on the brain and body, and how to avoid getting them. He also talks about how to more quickly get over a cold or flu if you catch one. Huberman emphasizes the importance of understanding the immune system and its role in fighting off colds and flu. He also discusses various compounds and behavioral tools that can enhance the function of the immune system to ward off or treat colds and flu. Huberman dispels common myths about treatments for the common cold and flu and emphasizes the importance of consuming zero-cost information about science and science-based tools for everyday life.

This video by Andrew Huberman was published on Jan 8, 2024.
Video length: 02:05:49.

 

The video is about the science and science-based tools for preventing and treating colds and flu.

The host, Andrew Huberman, discusses the immune system and its role in fighting off colds and flu. He also talks about the importance of sunlight and red light therapy for overall health and wellness. The video also covers various compounds that can be taken to enhance the immune system and treat colds and flu. Huberman also dispels common myths about treatments for the common cold and flu.

The video is sponsored by Ju Ju Medical, which makes medical-grade red light therapy devices.

 

  • Introduction to the Huberman Lab podcast
  • Discussion of science and science-based tools for everyday life
  • Hosted by Andrew Huberman, a professor of neurobiology and ophthalmology at Stanford School of Medicine
  • Today's discussion is about colds and flu
  • A cold is a viral infection of the upper respiratory tract
  • Colds are caused by over 200 different viruses
  • Symptoms include sneezing, runny nose, sore throat, and cough
  • Colds can last for 7-10 days, but some can linger for weeks
  • The flu is a viral infection of the respiratory system
  • The flu is caused by the influenza virus
  • Symptoms include fever, chills, cough, sore throat, runny or stuffy nose, body or muscle aches, headaches, and fatigue
  • The flu can be more severe than a cold and can lead to complications
  • Colds and flu can weaken the immune system
  • They can cause inflammation in the body
  • Inflammation can lead to fatigue, aches, and other symptoms
  • Colds and flu can also affect the brain, leading to cognitive impairment and mood changes
  • Wash your hands frequently
  • Avoid close contact with sick people
  • Stay home when you are sick
  • Get enough sleep
  • Eat a healthy diet
  • Rest and stay hydrated
  • Take over-the-counter pain relievers
  • Consider natural remedies such as honey and ginger
  • Antiviral medications may be prescribed for the flu
  • It is important to seek medical attention if symptoms worsen or persist
  • The video is about preventing and treating colds and flu.
  • Andrew Huberman, a professor of neurobiology and ophthalmology at Stanford School of Medicine, discusses the science behind colds and flu, their impact on the brain and body, and how to avoid getting them.
  • He also talks about how to more quickly get over a cold or flu if you catch one.
  • Huberman emphasizes the importance of understanding the immune system and its role in fighting off colds and flu.
  • He discusses various compounds and behavioral tools that can enhance the function of the immune system to ward off or treat colds and flu.
  • Colds and flu are caused by viruses, specifically rhinoviruses.
  • There are over 160 different types of what people call the cold virus, which fall under an umbrella of a general category of viruses called Rhino viruses.
  • The cold virus always causes some degree of nasal symptoms in humans, such as runny nose, sneezing, or stuffed up nose.
  • The reason we don't have a cure for the common cold is that all of those different serotypes of the cold virus mean that the virus itself has a different shape on its outside.
  • Avoiding people who are sneezing and coughing is not sufficient to avoid getting colds and flu.
  • The cold virus is a pretty stable virus in that it can survive on surfaces nonhuman or human surfaces meaning skin or on a table or on a glass or on a door handle for up to 24 hours.
  • Just touching a surface that has the cold virus on it does not mean that you will necessarily be infected with that cold virus.
  • Your skin provides an excellent barrier against most viruses and bacteria, and includes a lot of antiviral substances on it even if you haven't put any of that you know.
  • Washing your hands regularly with soap and water for at least 20 seconds can help prevent the spread of the cold virus.
  • There is no cure for the common cold.
  • Rest, hydration, and a balanced diet can help alleviate symptoms of a cold or flu.
  • Over-the-counter medications can help manage symptoms, but they do not cure the illness.
  • Prescription medications may be necessary for severe cases of the flu.
  • Getting enough sleep and managing stress can also help boost the immune system and fight off colds and flu.

How to Prevent & Treat Colds & Flu - YouTube

How to Prevent & Treat Colds & Flu 001

Introduction

  • Welcome to the Huberman Lab podcast
  • Discussing science and science-based tools for everyday life
  • Hosted by Andrew Huberman, a professor of neurobiology and ophthalmology at Stanford School of Medicine
  • Today's discussion is about colds and flu
How to Prevent & Treat Colds & Flu 002

What is a Cold?

  • A cold is a viral infection of the upper respiratory tract
  • It is caused by over 200 different viruses
  • Symptoms include sneezing, runny nose, sore throat, and cough
  • Colds can last for 7-10 days, but some can linger for weeks
How to Prevent & Treat Colds & Flu 004

What is the Flu?

  • The flu is a viral infection of the respiratory system
  • It is caused by the influenza virus
  • Symptoms include fever, chills, cough, sore throat, runny or stuffy nose, body or muscle aches, headaches, and fatigue
  • The flu can be more severe than a cold and can lead to complications
How to Prevent & Treat Colds & Flu 005

How to Prevent & Treat Colds & Flu - YouTube

How Colds and Flu Impact the Brain and Body

  • Colds and flu can weaken the immune system
  • They can cause inflammation in the body
  • Inflammation can lead to fatigue, aches, and other symptoms
  • Colds and flu can also affect the brain, leading to cognitive impairment and mood changes
How to Prevent & Treat Colds & Flu 007

How to Avoid Getting Colds and Flu

  • Wash your hands frequently
  • Avoid close contact with sick people
  • Stay home when you are sick
  • Get enough sleep
  • Eat a healthy diet
How to Prevent & Treat Colds & Flu 008

How to Treat Colds and Flu

  • Rest and stay hydrated
  • Take over-the-counter pain relievers
  • Consider natural remedies such as honey and ginger
  • Antiviral medications may be prescribed for the flu
  • It is important to seek medical attention if symptoms worsen or persist
How to Prevent & Treat Colds & Flu 010

Section 1: Introduction

  • The video is about preventing and treating colds and flu.
  • Andrew Huberman, a professor of neurobiology and ophthalmology at Stanford School of Medicine, discusses the science behind colds and flu, their impact on the brain and body, and how to avoid getting them.
  • He also talks about how to more quickly get over a cold or flu if you catch one.
  • Huberman emphasizes the importance of understanding the immune system and its role in fighting off colds and flu.
  • He discusses various compounds and behavioral tools that can enhance the function of the immune system to ward off or treat colds and flu.
How to Prevent & Treat Colds & Flu 011

Section 2: The Science Behind Colds and Flu

  • Colds and flu are caused by viruses, specifically rhinoviruses.
  • There are over 160 different types of what people call the cold virus, which fall under an umbrella of a general category of viruses called Rhino viruses.
  • The cold virus always causes some degree of nasal symptoms in humans, such as runny nose, sneezing, or stuffed up nose.
  • The reason we don't have a cure for the common cold is that all of those different serotypes of the cold virus mean that the virus itself has a different shape on its outside.
  • Even if you've been exposed to a cold and you've developed antibodies against that cold virus, the next cold that comes along very likely has a different shape and therefore your body's antibodies to the cold virus it combed successfully before can't latch onto and defeat that next different serotype of the cold virus.
How to Prevent & Treat Colds & Flu 013

Section 3: How to Prevent Colds and Flu

  • Avoiding people who are sneezing and coughing is not sufficient to avoid getting colds and flu.
  • The cold virus is a pretty stable virus in that it can survive on surfaces nonhuman or human surfaces meaning skin or on a table or on a glass or on a door handle for up to 24 hours.
  • Just touching a surface that has the cold virus on it does not mean that you will necessarily be infected with that cold virus.
  • Your skin provides an excellent barrier against most viruses and bacteria, and includes a lot of antiviral substances on it even if you haven't put any of that you know.
  • Washing your hands regularly with soap and water for at least 20 seconds can help prevent the spread of the cold virus.
How to Prevent & Treat Colds & Flu 014

Section 4: How to Treat Colds and Flu

  • There is no cure for the common cold.
  • Rest, hydration, and a balanced diet can help alleviate symptoms of a cold or flu.
  • Over-the-counter medications can help manage symptoms, but they do not cure the illness.
  • Prescription medications may be necessary for severe cases of the flu.
  • Getting enough sleep and managing stress can also help boost the immune system and fight off colds and flu.
How to Prevent & Treat Colds & Flu 015

The Importance of Barrier Component of the Immune System

  • The immune system has a barrier component that is important in preventing and treating colds and flu.
  • The barrier component is made up of particles that are extremely small, such as the cold virus, which is in the range of about five microns or so.
  • The cold virus is made up of particles that are relatively heavy and do not tend to mist about in the air for very long.
  • The cold virus can survive for a very long time on surfaces, such as door handles or tables.
  • If a person touches a surface with the cold virus on it and then wipes their eyes, the cold virus can infect them.
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Contagion and Transmission of Cold Virus

  • The cold virus can be transmitted through the air, via contact from skin to skin, and can survive on surfaces for up to 24 hours.
  • Touching the eye region is the primary route by which the cold virus is transmitted from one person to the next.
  • The frequency of people touching their face, particularly around the eyes, is extremely high throughout the day.
  • Sneezing, coughing, or blowing the nose into tissues and then throwing them in the trash are also routes by which the cold virus is transmitted.
  • Washing hands after each and every time a person does one of these actions is important in preventing the spread of the cold virus.
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Contagion and Transmission of Flu

  • The flu differs from the cold in that it is a more severe illness and can be contagious for a longer period of time.
  • The flu is contagious for up to 24 hours after symptoms appear.
  • The flu can be transmitted through the air, via contact from skin to skin, and can survive on surfaces for up to 24 hours.
  • Touching the eye region is also a primary route by which the flu is transmitted from one person to the next.
  • Washing hands after each and every time a person does one of these actions is important in preventing the spread of the flu.
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Different Serotypes of Cold Virus and Their Symptoms

  • Different serotypes of the cold virus can create different arrays of overall symptoms.
  • One cold might be a "bad cold" while another is more mild.
  • Some colds can induce more runny nose while others can cause more stuffy head and a little bit of fever.
  • In some cases, a cold can cause a lot of fever.
  • It is important to understand that if people are going to be infected by the cold virus, they tend to develop symptoms one to two days after they were exposed to the virus.
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Tools to Boost Immune System and Prevent Colds and Flu

  • There are tools supported by science that allow you to bolster your immune system and greatly increase the chances of avoiding getting a cold or flu.
  • These tools include consuming vitamins, such as vitamin C, and getting enough sleep.
  • Other tools include practicing good hygiene, such as washing hands regularly, and avoiding close contact with people who are sick.
  • There are also natural remedies, such as taking elderberry or ginger, that can help boost the immune system.
  • It is important to note that there are no cures for the common cold or flu, but there are ways to prevent and treat them.
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Understanding the Cold Virus

  • The probability of getting sick with a novel serotype of the cold virus is low if your body has never seen it before.
  • You are generally most contagious to other people when you feel at your worst, which is when you're coughing and sneezing and have a stuffy head, watery eyes, and so on.
  • You can also be contagious to other people when you are starting to feel better, but most data points to the fact that about 5 to 6 days after you hit your peak of worst symptoms, you are no longer contagious.
  • It is important to stay home and away from other people as much as possible if you have a cold, even if you feel better.
  • The common cold can be mild, moderate, or severe and can exacerbate other health issues.
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Understanding the Flu Virus

  • The flu virus is a virus and there are different serotypes of the flu virus, just like with the cold virus.
  • The different types of flu viruses exist based on the different types of proteins that they express on their surface.
  • The most common type of flu viruses are in the A category, which caused the Spanish flu.
  • The Spanish Flu killed anywhere from 17 to 50 million people and occurred in four different waves of infection between 1918 and 1920.
  • The goal is always to contain the propagation of flu viruses, and the best and most reliable approach is to not come into contact with someone who is carrying the flu virus.
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Section 1: How the Flu Virus is Spread

  • The flu virus is typically passed from human-to-human contact or coming into contact with a cloud of someone's sneeze that contains flu virus or someone's cough that contains flu virus.
  • Shaking someone's hand could also introduce flu virus to your hand, and then if you wipe your eyes, it could get into your body and infect you.
  • There are limited types of flu virus present in a given year, which is why flu shots can be generated against specific strains of the flu virus.
  • Studies have shown that getting the flu shot reduces one's risk of contracting the particular flu that is most abundant that season by about 40 to 60%.
  • The flu shot is completely ineffective at combating any other forms of the flu virus and of course colds or other types of upper respiratory infections.
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Section 2: The Effectiveness of the Flu Shot

  • The flu shot is directed at specific strains of the flu virus that are most abundant for that particular flu season.
  • Researchers have determined that those particular strains of flu or strains of flu are the ones that are most abundant for that particular flu season.
  • Studies have shown that taking the flu shot can reduce the severity of one's symptoms if they in fact get the flu anyway.
  • Personally, the speaker doesn't typically get the flu shot because they don't tend to go into environments where they are particularly susceptible to getting the flu.
  • The flu shot is not effective at combating any other forms of the flu virus and of course colds or other types of upper respiratory infections.
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Section 3: Considerations When Deciding Whether to Get the Flu Shot

  • Most workplaces do not mandate that people get the flu shot.
  • Taking the flu shot is hedging a bet against the fact that you will be or not be exposed to that particular strain of flu virus that's most abundant that season or strains of flu virus that are most abundant that season.
  • The flu shot that you're taking is directed at those particular strains so again in my case I don't tend to take the flu shot but of course you need to make the decision that's right for you.
  • If you have family members that are immune compromised or you work in a school or you think that you are exposed to a lot of flu or you're concerned about transmitting flu to any one individual or group of individuals, those are all things that need to be taken into consideration.
  • Speak to your physician before making a decision about getting the flu shot.
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Section 4: Personal Experience with the Flu and Cold

  • The speaker tends to catch colds or flu at a rate of about once every 18 to 24 months.
  • When the speaker says a cold or flu, they mean a serious one that keeps them in bed where they have a fever and they're sweating.
  • The speaker pays close attention to how well they're sleeping, different life events, their workouts, etc., and puts those into their calendar.
  • The speaker has been able to go back and look at the events preceding when they've come down with a cold or flu again.
  • The speaker has seen that certain events, such as doing two hard workouts in a day or exposing themselves to cold temperatures while traveling, tend to precede colds or flu.
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Preventing Colds and Flu

  • Pay attention to when you first started getting symptoms
  • Look at what was happening in the days before getting a cold or flu
  • Consider avoiding crowded places, gas stations, and public transportation
  • Take care of your immune system by eating healthy foods and taking supplements
  • Get enough sleep, exercise, and manage stress to support your immune system
How to Prevent & Treat Colds & Flu 033

Treating Colds and Flu

  • Rest and stay hydrated to help your body fight off the virus
  • Take over-the-counter medications to manage symptoms
  • Consider natural remedies like honey, ginger, and elderberry
  • Get plenty of vitamin C to boost your immune system
  • Consider taking antiviral medications if prescribed by a healthcare professional
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The Immune System

  • The immune system is a complex system that protects the body from infections and diseases.
  • It consists of three main aspects: physical barriers, innate immune system, and adaptive immune system.
  • Physical barriers include the skin and mucosal lining of the nose and mouth.
  • The innate immune system is a generalized response system that deploys basic neurochemicals to combat viruses.
  • The adaptive immune system is a specific response system that recognizes and combats specific viruses.
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Physical Barriers

  • The skin is a physical barrier that protects the body from infections and diseases.
  • It has different layers of cells that serve as antibacterial and antiviral agents.
  • The skin is not contiguous, meaning there are holes in it.
  • The eyes have openings in the skin that are protected by corneas and neural retina.
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Innate Immune System

  • The innate immune system is a generalized response system that deploys basic neurochemicals to combat viruses.
  • It does not discriminate between different types of viruses or serotypes.
  • It is not specific to a particular virus or type of virus.
  • It is a first line of defense against viruses.
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Adaptive Immune System

  • The adaptive immune system is a specific response system that recognizes and combats specific viruses.
  • It is activated by the innate immune system when it detects an infection.
  • It produces antibodies that are specific to the virus that has infected the body.
  • It is a second line of defense against viruses.
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The Importance of Understanding the Immune System

  • The immune system plays a crucial role in fighting off colds and flu.
  • The immune system is responsible for identifying and neutralizing foreign substances in the body.
  • The immune system is made up of both innate and adaptive immune systems.
  • The innate immune system is the body's first line of defense against infection.
  • The adaptive immune system is responsible for creating antibodies to fight off specific infections.
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Preventing Colds and Flu

  • Washing your hands regularly, especially after shaking hands with someone who has a cold or flu.
  • Avoiding close contact with people who are sick.
  • Staying home when you are sick to avoid spreading the virus to others.
  • Getting enough sleep and eating a healthy diet to support a strong immune system.
  • Using natural remedies such as honey and ginger to boost the immune system.
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Treating Colds and Flu

  • Rest and hydration are key to recovering from a cold or flu.
  • Over-the-counter medications can help manage symptoms, but they do not cure the illness.
  • Home remedies such as chicken soup and ginger tea can help alleviate symptoms.
  • Prescription medications may be necessary for severe cases of the flu.
  • It is important to seek medical attention if symptoms worsen or persist for more than a week.
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The Role of the Eyes and Mouth in Fighting Off Infections

  • The eyes and mouth are the primary entry points for colds and flu viruses.
  • The mucosal lining of the eyes and mouth traps and neutralizes viruses.
  • The microbiota in the nose and mouth also play a role in fighting off infections.
  • The genitals and rectum also have mucosal lining and can act as entry points for infections.
  • It is important to take care of these areas to prevent the spread of infections.
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The Science Behind Colds and Flu

  • There have been several studies showing that people encountering another person and shaking their hand can either touch their eyes or touch another region of their face very close to the eyes or that they touched their hand to their mouth.
  • There are a bunch of theories as to why people do this, including the idea that people are sniffing their own hands and in particular sniffing their own hand more often after shaking someone else's hand as a way to detect what chemo signals exist on the other person.
  • The olfactory system, which is the neurons that exist just behind the back of our nose, processes information about our physiology and health and when we do this after shaking somebody's hand that there's a lot of information about the other person's physiology and health that our nervous system, factory system, and deep parts of our brain are involved in primitive type behaviors but also some pretty sophisticated behaviors are taking into account.
  • Noam Soel, a guest on the Huberman Lab podcast, has shown that people are kind of walking around in their own odor and tend to touch their armpits, different aspects of their body, and smell themselves multiple times throughout the day, this is all being done unconsciously.
  • The reason I'm bringing up these studies now in the context of colds and flu and how to avoid getting colds and flu is as a reminder that we are pretty much wired to contact our own face with our own hands at the level of our eyes, nose, and upper lip and around the eyes very shortly after we touch somebody else's skin and if you are mindful of it you can actually avoid bringing colds or flu to your face.
How to Prevent & Treat Colds & Flu 047

How to Prevent Colds and Flu

  • To prevent colds and flu, it's important to avoid touching your face, especially your eyes, nose, and mouth, as these are the primary entry sites for the cold and flu virus.
  • The primary actions by which we bring colds and flu viruses to our eyes, nose, mouth are by touching other people or by touching other surfaces that have colder flu virus.
  • It's unclear how much conscious awareness about these routes of path passage for the colder flu virus can reduce the probability that you will catch a cold or flu, but it's possible that it can reduce the probability to some extent.
  • Some conscious awareness of these routes of path passage for the colder flu virus can reduce the probability that you will catch a cold or flu.
  • It's important to note that some people have and are passing along cold or flu virus prior to any symptoms and of course it's possible that you can walk into an aerosol cloud of cold or flu virus even if a person isn't there and you don't come into contact with them, but some conscious awareness of these routes of path passage for the colder flu virus can reduce the probability that you will catch a cold or flu.
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How to Treat Colds and Flu

  • There are a bunch of theories as to why people do this, including the idea that people are sniffing their own hands and in particular sniffing their own hand more often after shaking someone else's hand as a way to detect what chemo signals exist on the other person.
  • The olfactory system, which is the neurons that exist just behind the back of our nose, processes information about our physiology and health and when we do this after shaking somebody's hand that there's a lot of information about the other person's physiology and health that our nervous system, factory system, and deep parts of our brain are involved in primitive type behaviors but also some pretty sophisticated behaviors are taking into account.
  • Noam Soel, a guest on the Huberman Lab podcast, has shown that people are kind of walking around in their own odor and tend to touch their armpits, different aspects of their body, and smell themselves multiple times throughout the day, this is all being done unconsciously.
  • The reason I'm bringing up these studies now in the context of colds and flu and how to avoid getting colds and flu is as a reminder that we are pretty much wired to contact our own face with our own hands at the level of our eyes, nose, and upper lip and around the eyes very shortly after we touch somebody else's skin and if you are mindful of it you can actually avoid bringing colds or flu to your face.
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The Science Behind Colds and Flu

  • Colds and flu are caused by viruses that breach the physical barrier of the skin and mucosal lining.
  • The immune system has an exquisitely sophisticated way of knowing the difference between cells of the body and cells from the outside world.
  • When a cold or flu virus is detected in the body, the innate immune system launches a response to attack the invader.
  • White blood cells, such as neutrophils, natural killer cells, and macrophages, act as a kind of ambulance system to go to the sites of infection and try to physically barrier the viruses and neutralize and kill them.
  • The complement system is a key component of the innate immune system that exists in the plasma within the blood and goes and marks specific cells that have been infected or viruses with a signal that essentially looks like an eat me signal to these other cell types of the immune system.
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Preventing Colds and Flu

  • There are various ways to prevent colds and flu, such as washing hands, avoiding close contact with sick people, and maintaining a healthy lifestyle.
  • It is important to understand the immune system and its role in fighting off colds and flu.
  • Consuming zero-cost information about science and science-based tools for everyday life can enhance the function of the immune system to ward off or treat colds and flu.
How to Prevent & Treat Colds & Flu 053

Treating Colds and Flu

  • There are various compounds and behavioral tools that can enhance the function of the immune system to ward off or treat colds and flu.
  • It is important to understand the immune system and its role in fighting off colds and flu.
  • Consuming zero-cost information about science and science-based tools for everyday life can enhance the function of the immune system to ward off or treat colds and flu.
How to Prevent & Treat Colds & Flu 055

Myths About Treating the Common Cold and Flu

  • There are many myths about treatments for the common cold and flu, such as consuming large amounts of fluids and taking vitamin C.
  • It is important to understand the immune system and its role in fighting off colds and flu.
  • Consuming zero-cost information about science and science-based tools for everyday life can enhance the function of the immune system to ward off or treat colds and flu.
How to Prevent & Treat Colds & Flu 056

The Innate Immune System

  • The innate immune system is a fast and non-specific response to a viral or other type of invader.
  • It does not pay attention to the exact serotype of cold virus or type of influenza.
  • Exposure to a cold or flu virus can make it into your system, but your innate immune system can fight it off.
  • Whether or not you get a full-blown cold or flu infection depends on whether your innate immune system can fight off the virus at the outset.
  • There are many cases where the innate immune system is sufficient to beat the virus and prevent a full-blown infection.
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The Adaptive Immune System

  • The adaptive immune system creates antibodies specific to the very invader that made it into your system.
  • It maintains a memory of that battle, allowing it to fight off the same invader in the future.
  • The adaptive immune system is an amazing aspect of the immune system that is job is to create antibodies specific to the very invader that made it into you.
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The Adaptive Immune System

  • The Adaptive immune system is a part of the immune system that makes proteins that have a particular shape on their surface that matches the shape of the thing that your immune system is trying to kill.
  • The Adaptive immune system has two basic phases: the first phase is the production of antibodies, and the second phase is the production of more specific antibodies that can neutralize the virus.
  • The Adaptive immune system takes information about how precise or imprecise that fit is between the IGM antibodies and the surface of that particular cold or flu virus and sends signals back to the stem cell populations in the bone marrow and other tissues.
  • The Adaptive immune system doesn't stop with the production of antibodies; it acquires a memory of the specific fit between a given antibody that it made and the viral invader.
  • If the next week or the next season you encounter the exact same serotype of cold virus or same type of flu virus, you already have antibodies ready to be deployed.
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The Innate Immune System

  • The innate immune system is a part of the immune system that launches a generalized attack on that colder flu virus and then the Adaptive immune system kicks in usually a couple days later.
  • The innate immune system is not as specific as the Adaptive immune system, but it is better at fighting that colder flu virus than is the innate immune system.
  • The innate immune system is the first line of defense against infections and is responsible for recognizing and eliminating pathogens.
  • The innate immune system can be strengthened through various means, such as exercise and a healthy diet.
  • The innate immune system can also be weakened by factors such as stress and lack of sleep.
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